So what is this Puppet thing anyway?

Puppet Zero

So you keep hearing about this Puppet thing and how it's going to solve all of your DevOpsy configuration management problems. But what is it? How do you write a Puppet script? Well, as it turns out, the key concept is unlearning the habit of thinking about scripts. But all in good time. We'll get there. First, let's write some code.

Let's start out with something easy. You all know what the /etc/motd file is. It's the message of the day file that's dumped to your screen every time you log in.

It's usually got goofy cowsay ASCII art, or some scary warning designed to make you wet your pants a bit before getting any work done.

It might look something like this:

         _   _           _              _ _                 
        | | | |_ __ ___ | |__  _ __ ___| | | __ _           
        | | | | '_ ` _ \| '_ \| '__/ _ \ | |/ _` |          
        | |_| | | | | | | |_) | | |  __/ | | (_| |          
     ____\___/|_| |_| |_|_.__/|_|  \___|_|_|\__,_|          
    / ___|___  _ __ _ __   ___  _ __ __ _| |_(_) ___  _ __  
   | |   / _ \| '__| '_ \ / _ \| '__/ _` | __| |/ _ \| '_ \ 
   | |__| (_) | |  | |_) | (_) | | | (_| | |_| | (_) | | | |
    \____\___/|_|  | .__/ \___/|_|  \__,_|\__|_|\___/|_| |_|
                             NOTICE TO USERS

This computer is the property of the Umbrella Corporation. It is for authorized
use only. Users (authorized or unauthorized) have no explicit or implicit
expectation of privacy.

Any or all uses of this system and all files on this system may be intercepted,
monitored, recorded, copied, audited, inspected, and disclosed to authorized
site, your mother, and law enforcement personnel, as well as authorized
officials of other agencies, both domestic and foreign.  By using this system,
the user consents to such interception, monitoring, recording, copying,
auditing, inspection, and disclosure at the discretion of authorized site or
Umbrella Corporation personnel.

Unauthorized or improper use of this system may result in administrative
disciplinary action and civil and criminal penalties.  By continuing to use this
system you indicate your awareness of and consent to these term and conditions
of use.

LOG OFF IMMEDIATELY if you do not agree to the conditions stated in this warning.

Umbrella Corporation policy and rules for computing, including appropriate use,
may be found at

How are you configuring your /etc/motd message right now? Is it an echo statement in your kickstart? Lets foray into the world of configuration management by learning how to do it with Puppet.

First we'll write a manifest:

file { '/etc/motd':
    ensure  => file,
    owner   => 'root',
    group   => 'root',
    mode    => '0644',
    content => "Whee! Puppet is fun!\n",

This is what we call a resource declaration. A resource is just something that Puppet knows how to manage. Puppet knows how to work with files, users, packages, cron jobs, Windows registry entries, and all sorts of other things out of the box. You can install more resource types as modules, too.

When we say manage, what we mean is that Puppet can take a description of what you want that resource to look like and perform any operations required to enforce that state. In other words, resources are managed in terms of attributes. When you apply the example above, Puppet will ensure that the file resource named /etc/motd will be a file. It will ensure that the owner and group will be set to root and the mode, or Unix permissions, will be set to 0644. Finally, the file's content will be set to the string we specified.

But enough talk, let's enforce it. Make sure to use sudo if you need to escalate to root privileges.

[532:ben@ganymede] code $ sudo puppet apply motd.pp
Notice: Compiled catalog for in environment production in 0.37 seconds
Notice: /Stage[main]/Main/File[/etc/motd]/ensure: defined content as '{md5}a0d35b13301c8d834e8a49197fbd1d03'
Notice: Finished catalog run in 0.07 seconds
[533:ben@ganymede] code $

What just happened? Puppet looked at the description you provided and made the state on disk match it. Let's try that again.

[533:ben@ganymede] code $ sudo puppet apply motd.pp
Notice: Compiled catalog for in environment production in 0.46 seconds
Notice: Finished catalog run in 0.06 seconds
[534:ben@ganymede] code $

Wait, what? Is something broken? Why didn't Puppet do anything that time?

Actually, it did. It did the same thing. However, the state on disk already matched the description you provided! Puppet is as lazy as the rest of us works efficiently and won't do something if it doesn't need to. It will simply check what's on disk and make sure it matches what's requested.

Use Puppet to describe expected state, rather than writing a script of actions to perform.

This is a concept called idempotence, and I'll come back to it in a later post. For today, the lesson you've learned is that you use the Puppet language to describe what you want a computer to look like, and then you let Puppet figure out how to enforce it.